VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

Vitamin D deficiency causes two distinct medical conditions, i.e., Rickets in children and Osteomalacia in adults.
Here I am describing them deeply.

RICKETS

It is a vitamin D deficiency in growing children and is characterized by the continued production of collagen matrix of bone, but inadequate mineralization results in soft and pliable bones.
There are two types of Rickets.

-NUTRITIONAL RICKETS:
It is due to deficiency of vitamin D and Ca++ in diet and inadequate exposure to sunlight.

-RENAL RICKETS:
Occurs chronic renal failure, in which kidneys are unable to form active for of vitamin D.

OSTEOMALACIA

-It is also due to deficiency of vitamin D in adults (it is not rickets in the adult. OSTEOMALACIA is entirely different from rickets).

-It is characterized by demineralization of pre-existing healthy bones which increases chances of fractures in bones.

-Occurs mostly in women who are economically weak and repeatedly undergone cycles of pregnancy and lactation. Lactation relatively puts more burden than pregnancy.

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

-Calcification of body tissue, especially renal arterioles, heart valves, lungs, aorta, and irreversible kidney damage.

-Increase serum Pi and cholesterol level.

-Growth retardation in children.

-Rickety bone has less inorganic matter, which is the primary defect in rickets.

-Cartilage bones continue to increase at the end of the long bones.

-Osteoblastic activity is increased as shown by the increased level of alkaline phosphate.

-The epiphyseal line becomes extended both literally and in depth so that, nodules develop at costochondral junctions (Rickety Rosary) and wrist, ankle, and knees.

-Tibia bends forward (bow-legs), femur outward and spine shows kyphosis and scoliosis.

-A transverse groove appears corresponding with the insertion of the diaphragm on either side of the thorax (Harrison sulus).

-Sternum swells forward (pigeon chest). It is the most severe deformity because it interferes with pulmonary circulation.

-The frontal and parietal bones protrude forward (bossing of the head).

-The skull shows craniotabes, i.e., softening of skull with the widening of sutures and fontanelles. And delayed closure of fontanelles.

-The eruption of teeth is retarded. There is a delay in dentition. And there may be poor enamel production, which predisposes teeth to decay or caries.

-The child with vitamin D deficiency has weak abdominal musculature and develops pot-belly (sign of debility).

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